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In scaling up to the pilot-plant or industrial scale it is important to formulate a formal link to the macro-scale phenomena (critical quality attributes of particles) by incorporating micro-scale phenomena (particle velocities, collision frequency), meso-scale phenomena (particle aggregation, breakage etc.), together with effect of process parameters, material properties and equipment geometry. We use a combination of population balances, discrete element models and computational fluid dynamics to elucidate and study this behavior.

Twin Screw Granulation

Snapshots of DEM simulations after as steady-state is reached for configurations with a 90 deg offset angle of different kneading elements. Particles are colored according to their compartment.

Drum Granulation

DEM image of particles at 5 s colored by liquid fraction using a PBM time interval of 0.01 s

Fluid Bed Granulation

Model geometry and mesh of the fluid bed granulator

Multi-scale DEM-PBM Coupled Simulation of Twin Screw Granulation Processes

DEM Simulation of Drum Granulation Processes